Kies is not detecting my Samsung Google Nexus S phone. Any idea why? I want to use Kies to sync my outlook contacts and calendars.
As the Nexus S is a "Pure Google" Android phone it works the way that Google intend Android to be used, this means that it is designed to sync everything constantly via the internet, it doesn't have any built in way to do old-fashioned occasional cable syncs with a PC.
What sort of account is your Outlook connected to?
If it is a corporate account, then it is probably connecting to a corporate Exchange server? If so then, depending on whether your company allow it, you can add your corporate account to your phone and sync your mail/contacts/calendar directly with your company's mail server.
If your Outlook is being used with a personal mail account, with mail coming from your ISP's mail servers (or similar) then you can either redirect that mail to a GMail account, and then sync your phone with that, or use tools to sync your Outlook's mail/calendar/contacts up to a GMail account whenever your PC is on, such as Google Calendar Sync, Google Apps Sync, Google Apps Migration for Outlook or use one of the third party tools that will sync Outlook with a GMail account, like Plaxo.
I believe eldarerathis is correct being that it is a pure google branded experience rather than Samsung but make sure you don't have USB debugging on, which is the problem some people run in to with Kies.