When I type a domain like
example.com, Android automatically formats it like this
Is there a way to disable this?
Try going to settings->Language and input
figure out which keyboard is active and look for the settings page for that keyboard.
Look for settings like: "predictive text", "auto punctuation", and "auto capatilize" If you have any of those settings ensure that they are turned off. Once you've done that test again.
If you wish to use some of these features it may be worth it to try flipping them on one by one and figuring out which is the actual culprit that is breaking your links.