I already uninstalled the unwanted applications from my device, but they still show up on "Apps installed on" in my Google Play account. Does it mean that the apps I got rid of are still stored in my phone?
In the Play store there is a 'installed' tab which as the name implies is of currently installed applications. The 'all' tab shows apps which have ever been installed on the device.
If you don't want a application to show up in this list, then from the phone open Play store, go into your My Apps and on the All tab you can click the circular remove icon to the right of the app will remove it from your Play account.