Does the Samsung Galaxy Nexus charger use a USB charger? If so, what kind?
Your question is bit unclear to me. Still I am trying to answer.
Almost all the Android phones these days (including Galaxy Nexus - GNex) have a micro-USB charging and data-syncing port. So they can be connected to your computer using a micro-USB to standard USB cable. Like most other phones, GNex also comes with a micro-USB to standard USB cable and a wall charger. You can use wall power or your computer to charge your phone.
And if you want to see exactly what charger comes with the GNex, checkout any of the tonnes of unboxing videos avaliable on YouTube!