EDIT: I think the question is more confusing than helpful. I leave it up simply because something else has been closed as a duplicate to this. My problem was finally solved by flashing a completely fresh stock android.
With my Galaxy S i9000 (galaxysmtd), I can only access download and recovery mode after flashing some recovery kernel via odin. The latter was done to escape the boot loop that my installed cyanogenmod 9 was stuck in.
Installing the cyanogenmod cm-9.1.0-galaxysmtd.zip from the sdcard from within the recovery mode gives me an error 7. This is supposedly because the recovery kernel I flashed was unfit.
My idea now is to flash only the kernel of the cyanogenmod-9.1.0-galaxysmtd as an odin-pda file, boot into recovery again and to then install the full ROM that is still on my sdcard, which should be possible then.
Because I can't boot the phone normally, I don't know how to put anything on the sdcard manually and have to use odin.
I have been reading though a lot of threads now, but the nomenclature seems to be used in such an inconsistent way that googling the right thing is almost impossible. I hope I expressed myself in sufficient clarity.