This sounds like the partition entry in the Master Boot Record (MBR) of the SDCard is damaged.
The best thing to do is, to do a low-level destructive format of the said SDCard in question, by using a partition manager such as GParted or Acronis, delete the entire partition on the SDCard, and recreate it again. Once the partition is created then perform a format on it.
Its difficult to pin down where the source of the issue is, the Camera uses FAT32 filesystem, Android uses FAT16 so that could be part of it despite being "compatible" in the sense of the word.
For future reference, go into Settings > Storage > Unmount SD Card, this will take a few seconds, the Android OS will safely eject the card for removal.
Alas, by force removal (intentionally or unintentionally) without unmounting can be catastrophic, because behind the scenes, the Android OS is caching the filesystem's buffers in RAM so it gets out of sync physically.
This explains why, if not, in all desktops, such as Windows, Linux, Mac, you have to safely eject it in order for the filesystem's buffers to be flushed to the disk. This applies also to all kinds of medium, be it hard disks, flash, and yes, it did held true back in the days of 5.25" floppies.