I believe the basic answer is no. Obviously it can't be done with AppLock since all the settings are accessed through the same app, but further than that you would have to somehow determine what the Settings app was doing and prevent it. This would be very difficult, and impossible without root.
I think the Settings app must be open-source, however, given that manufacturers can customize it. You could possibly modify it to lock out the application settings unless you enter a password, or something. That's beyond the scope of this site, however.
Another alternative is widgets that alter the settings directly. I'm sure you can get a widget that would allow you to edit the brightness and that sort of thing without going through the Settings app. I'm not exactly sure how widgets like this work, however; it's possible they might call into the Settings app, which would prevent this.
In that last case, it might also be possible to set up something like AppLocker that allows Settings to run if it is triggered by a "privileged" application. You could make the brightness widget privileged, so that the Settings app can make the brightness change when requested to, but everything else would still be protected. I assume AppLocker can't do this, but it might not be hard to develop (again, out of the scope of this site).
I know this is kind of vague, but hopefully it provides some sort of help.