New answers tagged encryption
Maybe: lifehacker: Three Ways to Improve Your Android's Lock Screen Security recommending: Picture Password Hidden Lock Unfortunately, native Android solution, like proposed here via "vdc cryptfs changepw newpass" seem to work only on rooted devices.
It looks like related bug "Issue 29468: Different passwords for encryption and screen lock".
As far as I know, applications (especially non-root ones) can't modify the power menu. If you long-press the power menu, there should only be the "power off" item as you mentioned. If you see the other items on the menu, you're not in the real decryption screen. Or alternatively you could input a false password and see if it's accepted without verification, ...
I had the same problem. Daj's advice was the solution. I downloaded a memory management app and killed every non-stock process I could find. I used Titanium Backup to Freeze apps that kept restarting. Then I attempted encryption and it did a quick boot and then began the encryption process. This is the final solution.
The only way to decrypt your phone is by doing a factory reset
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