The question is thus: It is very plausible for an android user to want to back up his information... completely.
In this case, I'm wondering if it is possible to backup an android device in such a way that the OS which resided on it can be executed in a virtual machine. (There may be limitations inherit to the virtual machine, those are not the focus of this question and would perhaps even be outside it's scope.)
However, there is a caveat: I wonder if it is possible to do this without rooting. There are numerous other questions along this vein, but none seem to provide a system-wide satisfactory solution.
Answers requiring rooting would be acceptable for edification (plenty who may want to do this have likely rooted their device).
However, for the preferred aspect of the question... I wonder if this can be done without rooting. A partial solution of this can be found here: with this question. The accepted answer is intriguing.
However, one good reason too root an android device is to examine it for spyware at a later time. (For example: let's say I'm signed up for a security class, and my professor would be willing to help. Later, and who wants to root a suspect system?) And at the very least, the solution to that question needs serious clarification. Are the gaps in the backup mentioned by the original poster the only gap in functionality?
I realize that the last end of this question could be construed as mere clarification on the referenced one: if you look at the number of upvotes, I think you'll find this to be of very broad interest.