It has been known that USB Storage functionality was removed in Android 4.4.x and subsequent version of Android.
PTP doesn't work very well on cross-platforms, not to mention it restricts files to certain media types.
MTP works in Windows and in some Linux distributions with certain tweaks. However, it is not very stable and breaks often when transferring huge files (on all of my three Android devices).
The question is to suggest some good alternatives for file transfer between Desktop and Android without compromising data transfer speed (via USB cable). It implies that no data transfer apps using hotspot/wifi should be suggested like Airdroid, WeLine, Webkey et al.
Note that the solution should work on at least all of the Android 4.x.x versions and possibly on 5.0 too. A similar question was asked here but its limited to Android 4.0.x.