As root is triggering knox, I would like to ask: Can I do everything root does through USB and ADB terminal?
What are the things I won't be able to do that root gives me?
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If you need to do something that requires root privileges, your device must be rooted.
You can't circumvent this via ADB because what ADB does is to provide a shell on your host machine through which you can run commands on the Android device. So essentially you are running commands on your device through your PC. Hence you can't do anything that requires root privileges just because you are doing it via ADB.
Once it is rooted, it doesn't matter whether the commands requiring superuser privileges are run from a terminal emulator or ADB or say, an SSH session.