In most Linux systems Netcat is installed by default. Is any Netcat-like application installed by default in Android OS?
Not natively. You first need to install a Terminal application like "Termux" https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.termux&hl=en then "Busybox" https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=stericson.busybox&hl=en. Here is some info on all of the tools included in the Busybox package https://www.busybox.net/downloads/BusyBox.html
There are also several other Netcat style applications available from the Google Play store - https://play.google.com/store/search?q=netcat&c=apps&hl=en
In recent Androids (e.g. Nougat and later), you don't need to install busybox for running netcat; it is enough to get a terminal and then type:
toybox nc [options]
and you will have the usual netcat functionality.
There is a simple GUI app anyone can use without prior knowledge in netcat.
It also has port scanning facility with filtering ports and timeout.