I currently use Outlook on the desktop and I am trying to integrate my outlook data with my android phone. Samsung S5. I don't sync with the cloud with office 365 as I have my own domain. The old days allowed for a USB sync between the desktop and the device. This would appear the best way to do it given my circumstances. There are a couple Microsoft apps but they do not sync all data with the Android system. They keep the data within the app, and not all data is available like contacts. Situations like this make we think about apple products again, which goes against my grain.
You can easily sync your desktop Outlook with your Samsung phone using the Samsung Smart Switch software. You can find the program at http://www.samsung.com/us/smart-switch/.
The only thing I do not like about it is there is no way to just sync your calendar from Outlook to your phone. It insists on syncing in both directions. The contacts can be forced to just update from Outlook to your phone which is what I like.