Up to Android Kitkat, there was the lock screen ring:
One could define up to 4 apps to be directly started from here (plus the option to simply unlock). This seems to have changed with Lollipop: there's only the phone symbol in the lower-left and the camera icon in the lower-right corner which one might redefine. When I discovered that on my first LP device I thought it might be due to the specific ROM (CyanogenOS 12.1) – but after having another device updated to Lollipop, I see it's the same thing there.
Two shortcuts are simply not enough for me – so I ask myself whether I've missed something (e.g. didn't find the corresponding setting), or if it's really gone for good. I want the ring back – so how to achieve that? Two possibilities which are not a real option: third-party lock screen apps (which usually want access to a bunch of things to work properly), or the Gravity Box XPosed module (doesn't work with CyanogenMod: device becomes unstable and behaves weird).