To summarise the situation, I tried all the steps and quirks to make remote debugging work for a Samsung Galaxy S4, and Galaxy A3, the chrome://inspect page never picks up anything, I tried with different data cables and different PCs, finally, when I tried with a Huawei mobile, it immediately picked up.
The ADB device in Device Manager does not seem to have any issues, it shows under group: Samsung Android Phone
Huawei on the other hand installed Universal Serial Bus devices > ADB interface, which is never active while connecting the Samsung.
What is so different about Samsung? What else does it need?