I know this was asked a while ago... but I am working on this right now so I thought I'd share what I learned so far.
In iOS, a VPN profile defines settings that the OS uses to then initiate a VPN connection. Everything is managed by the OS, so it would make sense that all of the VPN profiles would be in one location.
In Android, developers can create their own vpn clients instead of using the OS's. They call into Android API's to raise a virtual adapter that redirects all traffic to their VPN service which they develop and configure to do whatever they like. VPN connection settings depend on the app and any locally stored data would be part of that app's private data storage.
An example of this can be seen with the OpenVPN client for android. All of the settings for your VPN connection will be in an openVPN config file that you can load from within the app and you use the app to initiate the connection and change settings.