ADB is able to work over Wi-Fi, but it needs to be enabled on the Android device first. Usually this is done by using command
adb tcpip 5555 while the phone is plugged in via USB. However if the USB port is damaged, you will need to be rooted to enable the wireless adb mode.
If your phone is rooted, connect it to the same Wi-Fi network as your PC, install a Terminal Emulator app, open it and run the following commands:
Accept the prompt to allow access,
setprop service.adb.tcp.port 5555
If the above succeeded, you should then be able to connect from your PC by using command
adb connect <IP of your phone here>, for example
adb connect 192.168.1.100. If successful, you should be able to continue debugging.