As of current version (Version 8.25.1-release.0 on Dec 20, 2019), it is not possible to switch accounts while viewing a tweet on the official Twitter app.
The only way to switch account is from the sidebar, and it is currently only accessible from the main screen.
Instead, to "retweet from another account", the native workaround is by sending a direct message to that account:
- From a specific tweet, tap the "Share Tweet"
- Choose "Send via Direct Message" and choose the target account
- Go back to the main screen, then switch to another account
- Navigate to "Messages" (mail icon on the bottom navigation bar), then open the conversation with another account
- Open the tweet, then retweet.
(Note: to reduce the switching, it is recommended to bulk send the tweets first before switching)