I am looking for an app that works similar to "Chrome to Phone", but for file transfer from a desktop. With a right click on a file you can choose "Send to phone" and an application on your Android phone will see it and receive the file. Does anyone know a solution? And does it work on Ubuntu Desktop? And if it doesn't exist; What is the best alternative to send a file to my phone through the internet and without Bluetooth or a USB cable?
An alternative to the Dropbox way of sharing files is Ubuntu One
FTP file transfer using FileZilla. Its easy,secure, and offers decent data transfer rates. So you don't need Bluetooth or a USB cable to store and retrieve stuff from your device. There's a software called Software Data Cablethat allows you to transfer data wirelessly from and to your device using FileZilla. Using both of them together is simple. Hope this helps.
I don't know of any shell utilities that will let you just right click and send, but for transferring files to/from my device in general I am a huge fan of Files Anywhere plus it can send/receive faxes from your phone. You can upload files from your machine via their web interface, then download using the app. It's a free service, too. For Ubuntu, you might be able to write a shell script incorporating this and then add it to your right click options.
I reviewed Files Anywhere on my blog some while ago if you want to read more about it.
If you just want to transfer files while on your LAN and you're using wifi, Samba Filesharing works super well. You can just browse to your phone's SD card like it was a regular network samba share from your desktop.
I use Dropbox for that.
You could use Bluetooth to send it; use your Ubuntu system to do the sending and just make sure that Bluetooth is activated on your phone.
Alternatively, connect your phone to your desktop via USB and change your phone's Connection Type to be Disk Drive and then mount the disk drive on your computer(my Ubuntu system does this automatically). Copy it over using the desktop's interface of your choice. Then when you disconnect your phone, use a file browser like Astro File Manager to open the file.
Alternatively, if you have somewhere to put the file, Astro can get it via either SFTP or SMB. If you have wifi in your house, then you would be able to access it via SMB. There are boxes provided for Server, Share, Domain, Directory, User Name, & Password. Or you could use a data connection, but that would involve both your ISP not blocking the needed ports(mine does), and sending your password in the clear over the open Internet.