After the replacement of the LCD screen on my device, it started to overheat, and so my smartphone is restarting as a result of the overheat. I disassembled the phone, and it seems that the connection within the screen is causing those overheats. Are there any tools for Android to confirm that the screen is the cause?
No, this is a hardware problem, and the hardware doesn't have fine-grained enough sensors to isolate it. There might be two thermometers in your phone - one inside the system-on-chip, to check whether that is hot enough to be damaged; and one inside the battery, to perform the same purpose. To isolate where in the system a hardware problem (such as a short-circuit) might be, it would need separate thermometers on every component, and current or voltage meters to identify shorts. Consumer phones just don't have that, so the information isn't available to Android.
If you had a thermal imaging camera, you could find the sources of heat in the hardware while you use the phone. If you had a multimeter, you might be able to probe various parts to find a short. But those are both electronic engineering tools, and using them is well outside the scope of this site.
With CPU-Z you can look up which sensors are too hot, but therefore you have to know how hot things can be and where they are located. This would mean you can do a closer look a this point and in theory you can look closer to the point where it is that hot which would mean you would find a short circuit or a cable with too much resistance which you could then replace.