Absolutely, you could try out some accessibility features that serve almost a similar goal (as changing resolution in Windows)
You can easily enable large fonts or display scaling under accessibility in Settings.
Depending on the Android version in question, you can enable large font for example by going to Settings >> Accessibility >> Large text e.g on my device
You can also tweak related settings like enabling or disabling high contrast text (varies with android version)
Settings >> Accessibility >> High contrast text
High contrast makes text easier to read on your device. This feature
fixes the text colour as either black or white, depending on the
original text colour.
Another option to enhance readability of text on your device is using magnifying option (in Accessibility) allowing to zoom in or out certain parts of display.
If you looking for third-party applications to do the job try these:
Big Font (change font size)
Big Font (change font size & display size)
I'm not associated with the above mentioned applications but
doing a quick googling showed these are most used :)