The procedure for porting a SIM card from a pay-as-you-go phone to an iPhone 4 is well documented (example 1, example 2, config tool for iOS 5). This is a nice option for people mostly on WiFi who use a small number of minutes (or VoIP), because with AT&T GoPhone plans, you can keep network costs down toward $100/year.
Is there a similar procedure for porting to a high-end Android phone? For example, can you buy a $3 GoPhone from Best Buy, buy an unlocked or AT&T Samsung Galaxy S II off eBay, move the SIM card into the Galaxy, and expect it to work? Other than ensuring the GoPhone plan has a data bundle feature, what other configuration is required?