There are many claims that’s it’s possible to change Wi‑Fi ᴍᴀᴄ address temporarily, but each time there’s a permission error when running one of the command.
How to temporarily change ᴍᴀᴄ address without root ?
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MAC address is always spoofed temporarily since it's a read-only number burned-in hardware and a part of it uniquely identifies the manufacturer. However many network interfaces allow setting a spoofed address. In order to make the change permanent the overriding process has to be repeated on every boot.
Secondly, configuring network interfaces requires at least Linux capability
NET_ADMIN if not whole root. So, as you have observed, it's not possible to change MAC address or IP address or do other similar network configurations without the said capability or complete root access.