The closest you'd get to such a thing is a VPN. The VPN provider can apply any encryption you like to the data. You could even set up a VPN server with a built-in IP address filter (like an adblock system), which doesn't allow the app to talk to its developer's servers.
That all sounds good, but that wouldn't stop Facebook reading your WhatsApp messages. Most messaging apps are designed to communicate via their own servers, instead of directly from your phone to your friend's. This is important for a couple of reasons:
Most cellular providers block incoming connections from the Internet to a phone, possibly combined with NAT making several phones share a single IP address. Most Wi-Fi networks use NAT too. To pass messages back and forth, you need some fixed endpoint to connect to, and that's the server that runs the app.
Servers are also used to store the uploaded messages and keep them in sync between all your devices (phone, tablet, web interface, and whatever else). They also allow offline messages, just like how voicemail is on the cellular provider's server, not on your phone.
So if you want your mainstream chat apps to work at all, you need them to talk to their servers. Your best alternative for just chat is an app where you can host your own server and be in charge of your own security. Jabber (aka XMPP) is one such chat system, and there are several open-source clients for Android. You can either verify that the client you like isn't talking to anything but your Jabber server, or put it behind a firewall that only lets it talk to that one server.
Self-hosting is the only trust-free option for other similar services, such as email or cloud storage.