Some apps keep their own history, however there is no general log on Android that records user actions. On system level there is only
logcat which is implemented as ring buffer of usually about 64kb. If the buffer is full it overwrites the older entries.
How much time the logcat covers depends on the usage intensity and the device itself. I have seen devices that create even in idle mode so much messages by the mobile network and Wifi components that the logcat only covers a few minutes.
Regarding the apps with own history you should check the following:
- Browser history
- Dialer history
- Messaging and SMS apps
Besides the on-device data you get more information by asking the cloud/online services which actions had been performed in the time your devices was lost.
If you are a resident of the EU you have the right to demand a complete data log from every online service you use (because of the GDPR). This may be a large set of data and not only the data you are searching for, however if the online service records your actions it will contain the data you are looking for.