My regular digital camera assigns numbers sequentially. My Android 8.0 Galaxy S8+, after the date, assigns random numbers to each picture. If copied to a computer the pics all become "created" at the same time. I'd like them numbered in the sequence taken. Samsung says it's a logarithm naming matter and what I want "can't be done". I don't believe that. It's a computer. Why wouldn't it be able to do it?
To my knowledge, all digital cameras follow the Design rule for Camera File system (DCF), a Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association JEITA standard (CP-3461B) for digital cameras. This is why your digital camera sequences the photos.
Phones do not necessarily have to follow this standard, since they are not just digital cameras. Phone storage still used the DCIM folder to give a standardized placement for photos, but this does not mean that they photo file names will follow the standard.
As far as phones storing photo with sequential numbers, yes, it is possible that they could do that. It would mean changing how the file names are generated to use a sequencing number instead of the randomly generated number or, in my case with the S9, the use of the time in military format for the second half.