All of the normal permissions are listed here, but it does not say anything about root permissions. I can't find the names of individual permissions anywhere else either so I am asking here.
From my understanding and past experience programming Android apps in rooted phones, getting root permissions in an app is to have access to everything.
Android is built on Linux, which means that
su, or the root user, is the master user. Root user has the ability to do anything they want3. Apps granted root permission can add, modify, or delete things as they please throughout the file system. Along with that, they have access to the APIs that control the hardware of the phone, which means that they are capable of doing anything without your knowing, among other things (reason 3).
TL;DR Root has access to everything and can do anything.
Root (superuser) is not an app, it is a user that runs various processes in the Linux kernel (upon which Android framework runs). The permissions you listed are applicable only for system apps and third-party apps. When an app is granted superuser access, it does its things as the root user (UID 0). Barring some SELinux policies, there is no restriction for the most powerful user in the device.
Do note that app permission model of Android is controlled by system user (user 1000), and system user is not at par with superuser, so latter can override anything which other users are capable of doing.