It could be related to many things on Android, but most likely it is one of two things based on the nature of it's content.
- SMS Remote Control Message
Malicious applications can receive command messages and do specific actions based on that command, it may be an application that is being controlled via SMS command...
Back before Android 5.0 day's, SMS Message's could be easily hidden from the user and malware like this was reasonably hard to identify, as you wouldn't even see the outgoing or incoming message's...
This can still be achieved, however the constant permission acceptance and the new Default SMS App selection in Settings make it a lot harder to perform tasks in the background, hence the visible command message.
- Zero SMS / Flash SMS
It is also possible that someone is attempting to send you a Hidden SMS called a Flash Zero SMS.
Flash Zero SMS Message's can be uses to see if your device is active buy using SMS Received Replys, but not allow you to see the message on your end ( usually ).
Sometimes the Flash Zero SMS's PayLoad is not correctly formatted and you'll actually See the message being received.
SMS PayLoads have a lot of power on any Mobile Phone, some Pay Loads can program your devices APN for example, Some can configure internet access settings, some can initiate a hidden call to monitor your device, please look into SS7 security protocol to understand more.
The Android version you are using will help to identify the source & help to understand what might be vulnerable.
You should use some sort of Online search engine to find out more information about the number, or even try calling it !