Since there are a lot of projects for modified OSs based on Android, I was wondering: which sections of a stock Android ROM are proprietary software ("binary blobs")? How functioning is a stock Android ROM without these parts? I'm talking about "stock" to exclude all vendor related stuff right away.

Also: are all drivers closed source? Or are there manufacturers (of smartphone components) that supply open source ones?

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    There are Android Open hardware projects that try to (totally) avoid binary blobs which is pretty complicated (like finding a needle in a haystack). In general you can check the linux kernel for included hardware drivers. That is still the most complete list of open source drivers. – Robert May 12 '19 at 11:54