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Android one phones are near stock version of Android.

Starting Android 8 (or 9) project treble aims to deliver new version of Android without work from the OEM.

Yet phones with Android one and treble don't get update right away, see for example the Nokia roadmap to Android Q: enter image description here

For example, Nokia 2.2, Nokia 3.2 and Nokia 4.2 all have Android one and start with Android 9 (so they are treble ready) and have to wait until Q1 2020. Why can't they get the GSI directly from Google servers to get update as fast as it's released by Google?

  • Nokia is in the best position to answer your query. Did you try asking them? – Irfan Latif Sep 10 at 22:16
  • Marketing decisions are at the discretion of the business. Maximize profits by fewest interactions to keep devices current, probably. Anyways, marketing decisions, especially the "why" of things are outside the scope of this stackexchhange. – wbogacz Sep 10 at 23:04
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    Even assuming there are already read-to-install Android 10 versions for all the Nokia Android One devices - are you sure you want to install an untested update? Before releasing you have to intensive test each update on each device using many different mobile networks and set-ups. – Robert Sep 11 at 8:19
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    @Hugoy That's a very idealized situation - although OEMs technically can just leave vendor untouched (and often GSIs do work, yeah), from time to time upstream hardware-related code will still be updated, be it to improve performance or to patch holes. As for why users can't just use GSIs - not all Android One devices are bootloader-unlockable, as you can see. Android One can also include some OEM stuff (Moto's Moto Actions, Nokia's camera, etc.) which these OEMs don't want you to miss. – Andy Yan Sep 12 at 2:10
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    In the end, the direct answer to your original question would be - Nokia locks their bootloaders and refuses to let you unlock, so you can't take advantage of GSIs. – Andy Yan Sep 12 at 2:13
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The updates are still required to be done by the OEM. And if you try flashing a GSI yourself, it will either not boot or be ridden with issues. The underlying vendor partition also needs an update along with new and updated drivers and HALs from the component vendors to make the hardware work properly with the new OS version. Hence, it takes time to merge, develop, test and then make the final market release. I wish updates were as easy as picking the Google system image and sending it to the phones. GSIs normally work ok if you're installing the version for which the installed vendor partition was built. But in my case they weren't fully smooth. For example, my Nokia 7 has a badly performing modem when on a GSI. And the Android 10 GSI just kept on bootlooping.

  • “The goal of HIDL is that the framework can be replaced without having to rebuild HALs. HALs will be built by vendors or SOC makers and put in a /vendor partition on the device, enabling the framework, in its own partition, to be replaced with an OTA without recompiling the HALs.” – Irfan Latif Sep 22 at 21:13
  • But you need a compatible /vendor too to boot a major release. Isn't it? – singhnsk Oct 1 at 11:56
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In Android one programme updates are provided by google itself and they give the pixel phone the higher priority as if all the phone will start having android 10 pixel will start losing edge. Android one updates are not necessarily the fastest. Even Huawei is providing P30pro with android 10 in coming December

  • Yet that is not what project Treble and GSI promise. – Hugo y Sep 11 at 6:25
  • No. Google doesn't provide the updates. The updates are developed by the OEM, but generally delivered via Google's infra. – singhnsk Sep 22 at 19:52

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