Is there any way to clone the internal storage of a phone (huawei honor v10, android 8.0) if the phone is not rooted and USB debugging is disabled? I am currently locked out of the phone, but I want to preserve it's state (so I can recover photos in the future) and make the phone usable in the meantime.
Do you mean you don't know the PIN (or pattern or so), but you might remember it later? I am sorry, Android is designed to prevent it. And if you somehow manage to do it, it is likely to be far more expensive than buying a temporary phone until you remember the PIN.
Imagine what would happen when you were allowed to do that. You would be able to bypass any PIN protection. You would be able to do so even if the data were encrypted by the PIN, as this would allow you to brute-force the PIN.
As far as I know, the data are not encrypted by the PIN (or any key derived from the PIN by PBKFD or so). Instead, they should be encrypted by a key that is released from a hardware-based key storage after the correct PIN is provided. The hardware-backed storage should handle remaining PIN attempts and clear itself after the PIN attempts are exceeded.