Unfortunately, the information you are looking for is simply lost. The shortcuts that a user adds to the homescreen are saved inside the default home launcher's data directory. Typically, it is a database (named launcher.db or similar to it), usually within a table often named "favorites".
I checked the relevant database (for Nova Launcher) after adding some Chrome shortcuts to the homescreen, and then disabled Chrome, and then checked again. The relevant entries were no longer there, and they were also not restored when I enabled the app again.
Unless your default launcher was provisioned to be backed up by Google and was indeed backed up recently, or if you manually backed it up (highly unlikely), it would be futile to proceed in this direction any further.