I installed flipkart from apk. And without logging in searched for mobile phones.Then cleared app data and started VPN and then opened the app again but I was getting recommendations of searched phones. How flipkart bypassed VPN? How can we sure that browsers don't really bypass VPN?

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    Apps use device/OS identifiers to do profiling of you which don't change by using VPN or by clearing apps data. – Irfan Latif Dec 17 '19 at 18:41

It didn't bypass the VPN. The apps use your other identifications such as "Advertising ID" identify you. Then this information is used to give you suggestions/recommendations based on your previous browsing or search history.

Most apps will also keep a local cache. So, unless you have cleared data for the app, the app knows everything you previously did.

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