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Project Mainline (officially "Modular System Components" - https://source.android.com/devices/architecture/modular-system) introduced a set of OS components that Google can update via Google Play system updates.

Some of these modules are mandatory for OEMs to support depending on the version of Android that the phone ships with, but some of these modules are optional. OEMs can choose to add support for more modules when updating to a new version of Android, as well.

As the title states, how can an Android user determine which of these modular system components their phone actually supports?

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    Modules mounted in /apex/ (from /system or /vendor) are currently supported modules. OEMs can add any new modules with new OTAs or through GMS. Btw this is not something an end user should be concerned with (or at least it's of no use). It relates to ROM developers and particularly OEMs. – Irfan Latif Oct 31 '20 at 13:36
  • @IrfanLatif If you would like to rewrite this comment as a full answer, I will accept it as the solution. This worked for me - my OnePlus 7 Pro (launched on Android 9) has 7 modules in /system/apex/. – JBraha Oct 31 '20 at 21:01
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You can run /system/bin/pm get-moduleinfo --installed to list all installed modules with their package name and package label. Running /system/bin/pm get-moduleinfo --all lists all available modules (possibly some that are not installed) currently known for that Android release

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Note: user IrfanLatif answered this question in a comment under the original post.

Each "Modular System Component" is stored as a single .apex file in system/apex/ or vendor/apex. The name of each file in this directory indicates which module it is. For instance, system/apex/com.google.android.tzdata.apex is the time zone data module (https://source.android.com/devices/architecture/modular-system/timezone).

I was able to see these files using a file explorer app, no root access necessary.

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