In Why can't Windows detect phones, even when the USB driver is installed?, @Robert says:
And that Odin works at the same time is because Odin uses different drivers. From the perspective of your computer you have 3 USB devices, one for MTP, one for adb and one for Odin.
One can confirm this by going to
Device Manager →
Devices by connection:
What are the differences between them? Are there any other kind of driver? And which one is the Samsung USB Driver for Windows?