Every Android application runs in a virtual machine. We know that Dalvik virtual machine \was the one that is used by Android. Next, they changed to ART (Android Runtime machine). Just correct me if I am wrong. Android 11 uses which virtual machine, Dalvik or ART?

  • 1
    ART replaced Dalvik in Android 5. Dalvik VM is no more used. Jan 22, 2021 at 0:35

1 Answer 1


Android 11 uses ART. Android 4.x KitKat were the last Android releases to use Dalvik.

  • @Mdshammi111 You're welcome. Glad to help. BTW, Wikipedia has good articles on both Dalvik and ART, and the transition from one to the other. Jan 22, 2021 at 23:29
  • Can u suggest to me some textbooks regarding the android source? Jan 25, 2021 at 12:16
  • I'm sorry, but I do not currently know of any. The source is available online, but I'm not aware of any textbooks that walk you through it. Perhaps someone else will know of one. Jan 25, 2021 at 12:27

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