I recently became very suspicious of apps.  And a few questions have occupied my mind, please help me

  1. Is there any way that an application can access the camera without having the camera permission in the settings? (Android 9 and above)
  2. Can an app use intent to use the camera without the user's knowledge? (And take photos and videos of the user?)
  • yes those things are possible, though less than likely to occur unless you already have been significantly compromised, a new vulnerability is discovered, or you face an an adversary well beyond your defenses (law enforcement, nation-state actors, etc). there have been numerous headlines about this kind of thing over the years, like the school system admin who could activate the cameras on kids assigned laptops without any lights, or the mob boss who was convicted in part from evidence recorded by his phone while it was off.
    – Frank Thomas
    Feb 9 at 21:22
  • An app wanting a picture to be taken can send an intent to the camera app to take the picture and send it back (see developer.android.com/training/camera/photobasics). However, I don't know whether Android 9 and above allows a Camera app or an app with camera permissions to take pictures in the background (it was possible in Android 7 and below for sure).
    – Firelord
    Feb 10 at 14:26

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