"Planned obsolescence" is synonymous with "Android". As a general rule, you cannot upgrade the Android OS on a device unless the manufacturer provides you with an update. And huge companies like Samsung typically do not provide OS updates to customers for very long.
Even Google themselves, which typically provides the longest "promise" (the word of Google always has to be placed inside quotation marks) of OS upgrades for their hardware, but even they max out at under a half-decade (which, itself, is only a tiny fraction of what should be the usable lifespan of the hardware). And with a Google phone, you become even more entrenched with the Evil Empire.
That ugliness disclosed, the reality is that you can more or less continue to use Android devices well past the time when greedy self-centered manufacturers hope you throw them in the back of an obscure drawer. They key is finding apps (and app stores) that are compatible with your devices and not worry about the actual OS. If you can, removing the Google Play store and Google Play services can often dramatically increase the lifespan of an Android device, as well as its battery life. Yes, security will be an issue, but frankly, I consider all Android devices to lack effective security.
In all likelihood, though, the developers of your corporate "identification thing" will be using the latest version of Android on their development phones, and not pause to consider that most regular people are not interested in spending all the money required to buy that kind of hardware. As such, you'll probably need to run whatever OS version they demand.
One solution, if you aren't overly concerned about security, is to buy used Android devices. They are often much less expensive, and someone with your uses will likely not care about scratches or dents. In most regions, you can pick up a working, yet scratched and dented, Android phone for a low cost (same with iPhones).
That said, I think the best choice for you would be a used and beat-up iPhone that supports the software required by your company. Apple is well known for upgrading older devices to their latest OS, so an old iPhone may work. The downside to this is that Apple is also well known for intentionally degrading performance on such devices so the battery will last longer with all their new bloatware built into the OS. But for your uses, that shouldn't matter.
I learned about all this the hard way. Early during the ongoing pandemic, I wanted to see a doctor online. The doctor I found only performed video visits using software (written by her wealthy family) that supported the very latest Android devices or a recent iPhone. I had neither, and she simply didn't care that she was excluding all patients who could not afford such luxuries.