I have a Google Pixel 4a running Android 11, and I haven't been able to open any links in Chrome by tapping them. On my old Android 9 phone, I was able to tap/select a URL, and there was an option to open the URL in Chrome. I used this feature heavily when opening links from my email client.
Chrome is set as my default browser. In the app permissions for Opening Links, Chrome's option to open supported links is greyed out. The option to open supported links is also greyed out for all other web browsers.
Interestingly, if I select the first part of a link, like
https://www.example.com, there is an option to open the URL in Chrome. But if I select the full link, like
https://www.example.com/abc, then the option to open in Chrome disappears.
Screenshot for selecting partial link:
Screenshot for selecting full link:
My phone is rooted.