Your phone can not identify which computer it is connected to, USB an MTP protocol does not include something that could identify a host computer.
There is a feature for USB-C authentication planned but I have never heard that it is already supported by a device and if I understand it correctly it should allow to identify a device type or a device class, not an individual device or computer:
USB Type-C Authentication empowers host systems to protect against
non-compliant USB chargers and to mitigate risks from malicious
firmware/hardware in USB devices attempting to exploit a USB
connection. Using this protocol, host systems can confirm the
authenticity of a USB device, USB cable or USB charger, including such
product aspects as the capabilities and certification status.
Therefore the answer is no, with pure MTP and/or USB this is impossible.
However the other Android USB protocol Android Debug Bridge (ADB) supports authentication. The host computer automatically creates a RSA key pair you is used for authentication. The whole process is similar to SSH where you can trust a computer based on it's key pair when you connect to it the first time.
Hence you should enable developer options and ADB on your device and use adb based tools instead.
Note that if you should get an update to Android 11 there is a feature that automatically removes adb authorizations after a certain time. This option can also be found in developer options. In my opinion it is recommended to disable feature.