Can I find out how much battery takes running of certain application? The goal is to minimize using applications that take a lot of battery and maximize battery persistence before having to recharge.
If you go to Settings -> Battery(settings -> about phone -> battery in < ICS) . You'll see battery usage by everything running on your phone. If some certain application consumes very high battery, it will be listed there along with battery usage. You can then minimize use of such application.
If you have a newer version of android (Ice Cream Sandwich) you just go to Settings > Battery, and you'll find a list of what's sucking the most battery.
I see.. Your main concern is to save battery life and identify which app consumes the most of your battery.
You can use the hidden built-in android battery usage monitor using the guide below.
Dial this code in your phone dialer * # * # 4636 # * # * then press on Usage statistics
From here you could see how long your app is running even if it's running as service ex.(update gps position, get movement xyz axis for pedometer, compass, wifi/network location, barometer, Ambient Light Sensor or etc).