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What is the difference between: Rooting, Jailbreak, ROM, Mod, etc.?

I'd love a reference (or an explanation if anyone has the time) on what characterizes these different concepts, in what order they start and what role they play. I think I'm fairly certain of kernel and ROM, but the lines are a bit blurry when it comes to the bootloader and the recovery. Basically I have about ten questions related to this, but I think it would be best if there's just some pedagogical article somewhere that lays it all out :)

All the results I've found on Google basically explain it as "when you choose boot into recovery it boots into CWM if that's installed" and that doesn't really help me to understand the purpose of the different parts and how they work.

Thanks in advance!

edit Some questions I feel wasn't answered in the linked thread:

1) The difference between bootloader and recovery

2) CM states that improper ROM flashing can brick a device, how? Shouldn't recovery be left intact?

3) Can you install a custom recovery (CWM) without unlocking bootloader on any device?

4) Is fastboot the same as recovery?

5) What component is "responsible" for the SIM lock? Why doesn't it go away completely if that part is removed?

Thanks in advance for your patience :)

  • 1
    there was a similar thread android.stackexchange.com/questions/2885/… you might take a look – svarog Jun 23 '12 at 18:48
  • I think this is best contained in that other post, if you have any questions remaining I'd comment on the answer and see if we can get more detail in it. – Matthew Read Jun 23 '12 at 19:05
  • Added some extra questions up top – pzkpfw Jun 23 '12 at 19:11
  • I added some more on the bootloader, it should hopefully answer those questions. For (2) specifically, a bad flash can overwrite recovery or the bootloader or wipe out partitioning information that they rely on. (5) The SIM lock is usually a proprietary hardware thing that the firmware just interacts with, so you can't "remove" that. – Matthew Read Jun 23 '12 at 19:23
  • Cool, but I'm still missing a clear distinction between recovery and bootloader (question 3 is related to this). – pzkpfw Jun 23 '12 at 19:44