Yes, the feature has been known as Google Play Protect since 2017.
As per Google Play Help - Use Google Play Protect to help keep your apps safe and your data private, one of its features is to remove harmful apps from the device:
Google Play Protect checks your apps and devices for harmful behavior.
- It may deactivate or remove harmful apps from your device.
This is explained further in Google Play Protect - On-device protections:
PHA scanning services
Google Play Protect leverages cloud-based app-verification services to determine if apps are Potentially Harmful Applications (PHAs). Google Play Protect scans Android devices for evidence of PHAs.
Daily PHA scan
Google Play Protect's Verify Apps service scans devices once everyday. If a PHA is found, a notification asks the user to remove it. In cases where the PHA has no benefit to users, Google Play Protect can remove the PHA from affected devices and block future installs. [...]
Automatically disable PHAs
Some PHAs are more harmful than others and we treat them differently depending on the PHA classification. The most harmful PHAs are automatically removed from the device, while less severe PHAs are disabled. [...]
One of the known occurrences is when the Handcent Next SMS app was flagged by Play Protect in 2022 and removed on some devices:
To disable this feature:
How to turn Google Play Protect on or off
Important: Google Play Protect is on by default, but you can turn it off. For security, we recommend that you always keep Google Play Protect on.
- Open the Google Play Store app.
- At the top right, tap the profile icon.
- Tap Play Protect > Settings.
- Turn Scan apps with Play Protect on or off.
However, there were a few reports that disabling only Play Protect still didn't prevent the apps from being removed.
Additional reading: Verify Apps, the previous feature before being integrated to Play Protect, Business Insider - How To Protect Your Android Phone From Harmful Apps.