On stock Android (AOSP), it doesn't seem to be possible to customize how fingerprints should be used, other than the default for unlocking the device and additionally for biometric authentication.
A YouTube video by the official Fairphone channel shows that the interface is the same as AOSP, where there is no customization other than adding, removing, or renaming the fingerprints. (Cross-checked with Google Pixel 3a on stock Android 12; additional reference).
For these devices, the standard way to disable fingerprint unlock is to delete all the fingerprints. For temporary workaround, activate Lockdown mode if available, but this always needs to be re-activate on each unlock.
As for Samsung devices, they actually made customization to the Android OS to add the "Fingerprint unlock" toggle and other settings. (Confirmed on Galaxy M12, Android 13).
- Fingerprint unlock: Unlocks your device when your fingerprint is recognized.