Why hasn't Google developed such a suite as good as the Nokia suite that would almost 100% allow us to use most of our phones' basic functions on our PC?
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Google unlike Samsung and Nokia and such is a service company that wants to bind you to its cloud (sorry for the buzz word).
You can see it with Gmail, Google Docs, Google+, Google Voice and of course Google search which all are (more or less) agnostic of used operating systems, hardware and so on. They all operate in the cloud, the only dependancy is a decent browser.
And so does Android. You aren't bound to even own a PC if you have an Android device at all. It's meant to be a replacement for some of the stuff that you currently do on a PC. For a comparison: Only with iOS 5 has Apple removed the hard dependancy to have iTunes installed for backups and updates of ones iOS device.
Courtesy of Google :-)
Rephrasing your question to something more constructive:
Google hasn't developed such a suite as good as the Nokia suite that would almost 100% allow us to use most of our phones' basic functions on our PC. Are there any alternative ways available to fill this gap?
In this case: Yes, there are good answers available. The
market playstore is full of apps offering similar functionalities. For Windows users, the closest solution probably is MyPhoneExplorer. Together with its PC component, it offers almost all capabilities you find in your mentioned PC suites:
- sync your phone with Outlook, Thunderbird, Sunbird, Lotus Notes, Tobit David, Windows Contacts, Windows Calendar,...
- manage your SMS, Calllists, Apps, Files, handle Calls, create backups...
Connection via WiFi, USB-Cable or Bluetooth.
Other solutions include e.g. AirDroid, which allows you to manage your Android device from your PCs browser:
There's a Video Guide available on Youtube to show you this apps capabilities, which are quite amazing.
I could continue this list with a lot of apps, but that's not the intention of this site. Having given you the idea of for what to look and where should get you started filling your gap -- from here on, I guess, you can continue on your own ;)