This is what one of Apple's "Continuity" features, "Handoff", does... yes? But Handoff's only good between Mac and iPhone, so I have used Google Voice to dial and answer calls to my Android phone on my Mac.
You can connect your phone to Google Voice or port your number to Google Voice and then you can use Hangouts to answer and make calls. (If you have Sprint, like I do, this works great! Just use your number as a Google Voice number and it's totally synced; unlike fully porting your number over, everything stays the same with your Sprint service except now you use Google Voice VM but it's better and more convenient anyhow and nothing changes from the phone-side).
Also, have you tried AirDroid (AirMirror)? I use AirDroid for controlling my phone from the computer (Mac App or Website > computer and phone must be hooked to the same network); I also have it set up as security and to find the location, in case my phone is lost or stolen. And I use Pushbullet's Chrome extension for texting [because it is easier and I discovered it first;)].
AirDroid(AirMirror) is almost like Handoff except I don't know if it accepts incoming calls, but you can make outgoing. Check out: http://gadgets.ndtv.com/apps/features/how-to-make-calls-send-and-receive-sms-from-your-computer-using-an-android-phone-654766
There are a couple company's that I read about that are said to offer this exact solution but I don't have personal experience (except
"Vysor", I have used as an Android mirroring app for presentations):
*Seems like a great platform.
But ultimately, it seems like these are simply mirroring apps. Which actually could be just fine; the mirroring route is not as clean and fluid as Google Voice has been for me because of the necessary setup, every. single. time. But it could be an easy hack or workaround for this problem. You just activate the mirroring system when you sit down for work on your computer, then plug your headset into your phone, and then you can use the app's screen mirroring your phone to answer or dial calls, etc.
Either way, there are so many apps and stuff out there, I'm sure there are other options but in my experience, Google Voice has been the best at doing what you asked, and it's simple and seamless > once you set it up, you can forget about it!