Forgive me my sarcasm, but if you're looking for a virus on Android, you could also use a flatbed scanner :)
Honestly: No, you can't use your Windows AV program for that. If you really want to detect all malware possible sitting on your device, the app would need to access the entire device, including internal storage. Windows can't do that, as Android would not let it. Usually, only the SDCard(s) are exposed to an attached PC.
As for my initial sarcasm (which I hope you forgive me): the term "virus" is quite ambiguous. See this Wikipedia article:
A computer virus is a computer program that can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another.
There's nothing like that for Android. Which is, strictly speaking, an AV scanner is as effective as a flatbed scanner here (or vice-versa). The article continues:
The term "virus" is also commonly, but erroneously, used to refer to other types of malware, including but not limited to adware and spyware programs that do not have a reproductive ability.
So you're more likely looking for malware :) Still, you cannot do that from your Windows computer.