How can I find information on the hardware of my Android device like processor architecture, RAM, etc?
My favorite is the AIDA64 app.
I've been purchasing Android boxes (>10 makes/models in last 6 months) and testing/vetting them for friends. Heard the expression, "Mutton dressed like lamb"? It describes many of what's crossed my bench. The screenshot is of an AIDA64 scan done on an "M8S" box advertised as featuring an Amlogic S812 CPU. This app was one of only 2 describing the CPU/SoC to that degree of detail ("AMLogic Meson8 8726-M8" - the quote is QED).
Settings -> About Phone should tell you most of what you want to know. Failing that, it will at least tell you a model name which you can then search google for more info.
My 'About Phone' lists Model, CPU info (i.e. what CPU) and Memory info among other things. But I am running CM7 with Gingerbread.
Check the manufacturer's website or hit up a gadget database like GDGT.
CPU-Z is available for Android in Google Play Store. You can see your hardware information in it.
I got free 'Droid Hardware Info'. Under 'System' tab, it tells the Processor info, utilization of each cores and more.
Go for http://www.gsmarena.com/. It contains specs of almost everyphone
Install Droid Examiner from F-Droid. Gives lots of details, though not pretty. FOSS is good.