On my linux system I have a directory in
/home where all my personal files and local program configurations are stored. Where does Android store that type of file?
There's no direct equivalent in Android. Each app has its own directory in
/data/data (for a multi-user system, it's
/data/users/n). Apps are encouraged to show a metadata-based view of user data, instead of requiring the user to worry about individual files. Each app stores the files and databases that hold its documents, and its configuration files, in its directory.
For data that already live in files, the SD card contains appropriately-named directories such as
/sdcard/Movies, which are shared between all apps (with the appropriate permission).