No. This listener has nothing to do with "listening" in the sound sense: it's listening for intent broadcasts, which are a kind of signal that different software components in the device use to notify each other of important events. For more explanation about broadcasts, see What's the difference between a service and a broadcast receiver?
If you want to solve the problem of not being able to record audio, I recommend you post a new question with full details about what steps you took, what happened, and how long this has been happening, along with what phone and OS version you have. Without any further details, my first guess would be that if the audio recorder app you're using stopped unexpectedly, it failed to properly release the mic for use by other apps. In this case restarting the device would fix the problem.